This program was formerly known as the Sexually Violent Predator Treatment Program (SVPTP) in 1999 and the Missouri Sexual Offender Treatment Center (MSOTC) in 2001. It is now a service provided by the Southeast Missouri Mental Health Center (SMMHC), a facility of the Division of Comprehensive Psychiatric Services, Missouri Department of Mental Health. It was developed as the result of legislation passed by the Missouri General Assembly for the indefinite civil commitment of individuals adjudicated by the court as "Sexually Violent Predators." The legislation requires the Department of Mental Health to 1) evaluate individuals to assist the court in determining sexually violent predator status and 2) provide treatment for those adjudicated as sexually violent predators. The Sexually Violent Predator Act, 632.480, became effective January 1, 1999.

Positions to open the program were requested during the FY99 supplemental budget process and the program officially opened on January 4, 1999, under the direction of Lauretta Walker, Ph.D., as part of the Southeast Missouri Mental Health Center. An interagency agreement was made with the Missouri Department of Corrections to house the program in one of the housing units located on the grounds of the Farmington Correctional Center until two DMH buildings (Hoctor and Blair) were vacated and renovated for the program.

The program became a separate facility from Southeast Missouri Mental Health Center on July 1, 2001, and was officially named the Missouri Sexual Offender Treatment Center. In 2003 the residents were moved to the renovated Hoctor and Blair Buildings. On July 1, 2009, the program again became part of the Southeast Missouri Mental Health Center and was renamed Sex Offender Rehabilitation and Treatment Services.