What problem are you addressing?
The problem is the measurable difference between your goal ("what good looks like") and the outcome you are experiencing.
For example: Pretend you are addressing the unusually high accident rates on certain city streets.
You have a goal of a safe city for drivers. What good looks like is as few accidents as possible. The problem you are facing is that the city is not as safe for drivers as it can be. You know this because there are more accidents in certain areas than in others.
What is your primary measure for impact?
A "primary measure" is the specific, direct outcome you are trying to change.
For example: Your primary measure would be the number of vehicle crashes at the high-accident locations.
What is your proposed solution?
A solution is your proposed action to improve the root cause of the problem.
For example: You propose installing stop signs at each of these intersections.